“ For a little while I was a cardiologist- for six months and it was an extraordinary experience because in those days we didn’t have the apparatus we have now and the way you decided how big someone’s heart was by percussion. You tapped it out on their chest and one of things I really gradually developed was the notion that you should be able to tap at it psychologically because here you are laying on hands. So my interest was intellectual then it became sort of operational and scientific I suppose in a sense.” Havens, 1996 interview

On this page are articles that contain Havens psychobiological experiments, his investigation into the effects of psychopharmacology and electric shock treatment. There he documents the beginnings of his scientific approach to understanding the relationship of the body to mind that will later include the approaches of different schools of thought to psychiatric illnesses and his own inventions of tests of empathy, the “real” and the psychological equivalent of medical percussion.



Shock Therapy